GIANT MAGELLAN TELESCOPE COMMUNITY SCIENCE MEETING BLACK HOLES AT ALL SCALES . The Giant Magellan Telescope will refine the search for Earth-like exoplanets—and, potentially, for life elsewhere Stellar Archeology A young astrophysicist finds clues to the origins of stars and galaxies by probing ancient, dwarf stars within and near the Milky Way Here's How, U. of C. gets serious about stargazing: University invests millions, gaining access to telescopes in Chile, Richard Kron to chair Science Advisory Committee of Giant Magellan Telescope, Giant telescope could solve deep mysteries, Celestial wish list: Astronomers prioritize projects for the coming decade, Give to the Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics. ALMA/ELT Workshop March 2009 . Combined with the casting, machining and polishing equipment at the Mirror Lab, these test systems provide a complete manufacturing plant for efficient serial production of the GMT segments. The update requirement is relaxed to every few milliseconds for the more-forgiving infrared wavelengths. Following the construction of the 200-in. ... giant planets. The first GMT segment rests on the furnace hearth after a successful casting. Wavelength (microns) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Throughput GMT + SuperFIRE Atmosphere + Telescope + Coatings + Gratings GMT Focus GMT Focus Offner Relay M1 M3 Echelle Slit J Camera H Camera K Camera M2 VPH X-disp 1 pixel (18 μm) 870 nm 1400 nm 1400 nm 1800 nm 1800 nm 2415 nm y/J H K Requirement Goal Driver Affected design element SuperFIRE Slit width 0.7” 0.7" LCO natural seeing/ This limits the resolution to 0.7 arc-second—more than 100 times worse than the potential resolution. In some cases, their goal is to understand the structure and evolution of the objects themselves. Optical test for the GMT off-axis segments. The aplanatic Gregorian optics with corrector provides a 20 arcmin field of view. The 5th of the Giant Magellan Telescope's 7 gigantic mirrors is being cast at the Caris Mirror Laboratory, as the GMT progresses towards first light in the early 2020's. They are a marvel of modern engineering and glassmaking; each segment is curved to a very precise shape and polished to within a wavelength of light—approximately one-millionth of an inch. These form the interface between the mirror segment and its 160-actuator active support system. A detail of the primary and secondary mirrors. 7012, paper 70121B (2008). The small package containing the interferometer, CGH and smaller mirror requires an alignment accuracy of about 10 µm, and the larger dimensions between that package, the larger mirror and the GMT segment must be controlled to about 100 µm. During the same time frame we expanded the furnace to 8 m capacity, and in 1992-94 cast 6.5 m mirrors for the MMT (replacing the six 72 inch telescopes of the original Multiple Mirror Telescope) and the first of two Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, future site of the GMT. The honeycomb sandwich mirror is a single piece of glass containing 1,700 hexagonal cavities. The circular nature of … The mirrors’ structure, formed by melting the glass in a complex mold, is the 2D version of an I-beam, so these mirrors are about eight times stiffer than solid mirrors with comparable mass. Field of view (MANIFEST): 300 arcmin 2. All Rights Reserved. That’s because the scanning pentaprism, with two internal reflections, deflects the beam by a constant 90° angle independent of small rotations of the prism. The aplanatic Gregorian optics with corrector provides a 20 arcmin field of view. Twenty tons of E6 borosilicate glass from Ohara melted over the ceramic fiber mold at a temperature of 1,200° C, with a viscosity similar to room-temperature honey. Commissioning of the telescope is scheduled to begin in 2021. The Mirrors of The Giant Magellan Telescope. >> J.I. At right is a blow-up of the interferometer and first two elements of the null corrector. Instead of one large mirror, the GMT will have seven separate mirrors working together.This will mean its collecting area is bigger than the actual mirror surfaces. Optical testing is also an interesting problem for very aspheric mirrors. 2. Astronomers will soon be using the 25-m Giant Magellan Telescope to probe the universe with a sensitivity and resolution that go far beyond anything that can be achieved today. INTRODUCTION The GMT [1] is a doubly segmented telescope, with a primary mirror (M1) composed of seven circular 8.4 m segments, The Giant Magellan Telescope is a new 25-meter class ground-based telescope being constructed at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile’s Atacama Desert, one … A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope Robert A. Simcoea,b, G abor Fur} esz b, Mark Egan , Timothy Hellickson , and Andrew Malonisb aMIT Department of Physics, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA bMIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA, USA ABSTRACT We present a simple seeing-limited IR … The atmosphere sets the accuracy requirements. The new tower replaced the original 24-m tower, which was used for all mirrors through the LBT primaries but wasn’t quite large and stiff enough to accommodate the GMT tests. Oblique reflections off of the two mirrors do most of the shaping of the wavefront, and the CGH cleans up the remaining aberrations. Instead, the Giant Magellan Telescope uses just seven mirrors (four are already complete), each a monstrous 8.4 meters (or 28 feet!) Image Use Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use. The GMT design combines the smoothness and stability of large honeycomb sandwich segments with low-noise adaptive secondary segments, to provide a dramatic advance in sensitivity and resolution. The segmented primary mirror is composed of 8.4 m diameter circular segments. Artist’s concept of the Giant Magellan Telescope. A previous burst of telescope development occurred during the early 20th century, when George Ellery Hale led efforts that culminated in the 60-in. Laser Tweezers and Holographic Optical Trapping, Kilogram-Scale Perovskite Crystals Detect Gamma Rays, Introduction to Physics in Modern Medicine, Third Edition, Copyright © 2020 | The Optical Society. With their unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, these telescopes open new windows onto the universe. The full set of test optics for the GMT segments has been installed in a new 28-m test tower at the Mirror Lab. Thus, they initiated the manufacturing process while detailed design of the telescope was going on in parallel. Beginning in 1983, the Mirror Lab cast and polished a number of mirrors of 1.8 m diameter—then 3.5 m, 6.5 m and finally 8.4 m. The 6.5-m mirrors are in the MMT telescope in Arizona and the twin Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. These mirrors have produced some of the best images ever obtained without adaptive correction. As faster actuators, wavefront sensors and processors are developed, astronomers are gradually pushing the techniques to visible wavelengths. 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