Exhumations were common as survivors and widows struggled with competing notions of sacred ground. Estimates of Confederate casualties (killed, wounded, and missing) during the Civil War range from 335,000 to 450,000 and even higher. Battle Of Shiloh: Over 23,000 casualties These numbers usually include the deaths of military personnel which are the direct results of battle or other military wartime actions, as well as the wartime/war-related deaths of soldiers which are the results of war-induced epidemics, famines, atrocities, genocide, etc. The estimates for Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, South Carolina, and Arkansas have been updated to reflect more recent scholarship. Eighteen members of the Christian family of Christianburg, Virginia were killed during the war. This means that one soldier could be marked as a casualty several times throughout the course of the war. There were an estimated 1.5 million casualties in the American Civil War. The United States had 416,800 military casualties. 63% of Union fatalities were due to disease, 12% due to wounds, 19% of Union deaths were due to death on the battle field. A "casualty" is a military person lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, internment, capture, or through being missing in action. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said “the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.”. ), Battle Of Gettysburg: Over 50,000 casualties In practice, officers would usually be responsible for recording casualties that occurred within their commands. PA Civil War Soldier Deaths Recorded on Tombstones. According to “The Impact of Disease on the Civil War” by Intisar K Hamidullah, 3/5 Union troops died of diseases. A wholly accurate count will almost certainly never be made. Other Deaths*: Over 250,000, Combat Deaths: Over 95,000 Q. This database includes lists and narrative reports reporting casualties sustained by Confederate Army units during the war. The unprecedented violence of battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River, and Gettysburg shocked citizens and international observers alike. The difference represents the number of young people who died in the intervening decade, and Hacker took an educated stab, based on a shrewd reading of regional loyalties, at determining how many of them likely perished on the battlefield and not home peacefully in bed. The latter two conflicts took by far the most American lives, with 140,414 battle deaths during the Civil War on the Union side and 291,557 American battle deaths throughout World War II. The largest human catastrophe in American history, the Civil War forced the young nation to confront death and destruction in a way that has not been equaled before or since. Unfortunately, these little pieces of paper were usually transported by mule in the rear of a fighting army. This gives a kind of snapshot of the unit's composition in a specific time and place. Nearly the entire student body of Ole Miss--135 out 139--enlisted in Company A of the 11th Mississippi. Our modern conception of casualties includes those who have been psychologically damaged by warfare. Regiments of approximately one thousand men, the building block of the armies, would often be raised from the population of a few adjacent counties. This led to a rise in awareness of veterans' needs as well as increased responsibility and social power for women. The numbers of Civil War dead were not equaled by the combined toll of other American conflicts until the War in Vietnam. Online Civil War Indexes, Records and RostersA Genealogy Guide General Civil War Records Websites. It’s useful to keep in mind that the long-accepted 620,000 tally was the work of two energetic but amateur historians, William F. Fox and Thomas Leonard Livermore, Union veterans who read every pension record, battlefield report and muster roll they could put their hands on. There were no national cemeteries, no burial details, and no messengers of loss. From 1861 to 1865, the Civil War ravaged America. U.S. Civil War Soldiers 6.3 million soldiers who served in the American Civil War. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. var NetMarketingAdvisers_goal = { id: "1275" }; Civil War Times Editor Dana Shoaf shares the story of how Battery H of the 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery found itself in the middle of the Battle of Gettysburg. ... Pfc. Weren't many of these soldiers killed and not found? The distinguished Civil War historian James McPherson has estimated that there were 50,000 civilian deaths during the war, and has concluded that the overall mortality rate for the South exceeded that of any country in World War I and all but the region between the Rhine and the Volga in World War II. Percussion caps had come into use on Model 1842 smoothbore muskets, but it was hoped an even... On Wednesday, Medal of Honor recipient Bennie G. Adkins was finally laid to rest with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery. This distinction did not exist during the Civil War. In the decades leading up to the Civil War, Minié balls and rifling began to replace round balls and smoothbore barrels in U.S. Army arsenals. Where does this come from? For one thing, apparently, the reunited country’s 1870 census was something of a hash, with a level of undercounting that made the complaints around our recent 2010 census seem mild by comparison. Battle Of Chickamauga: Over 34,000 casualties To begin, we must answer the question, 'What is a casualty of war?' In her extraordinary book This Republic of Suf­fering, the historian and president of Harvard University reminded modern readers of post-war America’s obsession with Civil War death and memory. There were a whole host of Civil War diseases during the American Civil War. Even with close to total conscription, the South could not match the North's numerical strength. (in PDF format, sorted alphabetically by last name of casualty) American Samoa Guam Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Canal Zone Alabama / Alaska / Arizona / Arkansas / California / Colorado / Connecticut / Delaware / Florida / Georgia / Hawaii / Idaho / Illinois / Indiana / Iowa / Kansas / Kentucky / Louisiana / Maine / Maryland / Massachusetts / Michigan / Minnesota / The Majority of our funds go directly to Preservation and Education. There was a total of 15 million military deaths in World War II, according to the National World War II Museum. "Casualty" and "fatality" are not interchangeable terms--death is only one of the ways that a soldier can become a casualty. The Union side suffered more than 350,000 deaths, both battle and non-battle related. The new Civil War death toll numbers have stirred the pot afresh. More American soldiers became casualties at the Battle of Gettysburg than in the Revolutionary War and War of 1812 combined. The Confederate forces saw some 160,000 battle and non-battle deaths. It also inspired a major New York Times story in April by Guy Gugliotta (whose new book, Freedom’s Cap, by the way, tells the extraordinary story of the U.S. Capitol and the coming of the rebellion). Cold Harbor: Over 18,000 casualties. Those old emotions remain raw. A "casualty" is a military person lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, internment, capture, or through being missing in action. Note the mortal threat that soldiers faced from disease. The primitive nature of Civil War medicine, both in its intellectual underpinnings and in its practice in the armies, meant that many wounds and illnesses were unnecessarily fatal. The article called out the dean of the field for using that number “without citing the source in Battle Cry of Freedom, his Pulitzer-winning 1988 history of the war.” The fact that no one else has ever “sourced” the figures did not seem to matter in the new rush to up the gruesome ante. Special Veterans' 1890 Census Lists the veteran's name or widow's name, rank, year of enlistment, and year of discharge. The Civil War soldier's chances of not surviving the war was about one in four. New military technology combined with old-fashioned tactical doctrine to produce a scale of battle casualties unprecedented in American history. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. Union medical care, he further points out, was far superior to Confederate—and more Johnny Rebs might have died of disease than Billy Yanks. The total American Civil War casualty count is usually said to be 618,000-620,000. Total Killed and Dead Civil War Soldiers Taken as a percentage of today's population, the toll would have risen as high as 6 million souls. Approximately one in four soldiers that went to war never returned home. Given the relatively complete preservation of Northern records, Fry's examination of Union deaths is far more accurate than his work in the South. Muster rolls, generated every few months by commanding officers, list soldiers in their respective units as "present" or "absent." Did they rejoin their unit; did they return home; did they die? A basic definition of fatality is any combatant who dies during the war, including killed in action, mortally wounded, died of disease, accidental death, and deaths from all other causes, including suicide. A true accounting of the number of men in the armies can be approached through a review of three primary documents: enlistment rolls, muster rolls, and casualty lists. Compiling casualty figures for Civil War soldiers is a complex process. However, combat threw armies into administrative chaos and the accounting done in the hours or days immediately following a battle often raises as many questions as it answers. What became of wounded soldiers? Soldiers suffering from what we would now recognize as post-traumatic stress disorder were uncatalogued and uncared for. His estimates were based on Confederate muster rolls--many of which were destroyed before he began his study--and many historians have disputed the results. McPherson, in turn, had a bone to pick with yet another great historian, Mark E. Neely, who once convincingly argued that the Civil War was not a total war in the 20th-century sense. Harold Holzer is chairman of the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Foundation. Free Pennsylvania Civil War rosters, histories, draft lists, biographies, letters, diaries, & Medal of Honor Recipients. The Battle of Gettysburg, one of the bloodiest engagements during the Civil War, resulted in about 7,000 deaths and 51,000 total casualties. Hacker employed a new range of statistical accounting to determine mortality, including a system called the “two-census method.” To measure deaths, he counts the number of 20- to 30-year-olds in the 1860 census, and the number of 30- to 40-year-olds who turn up in—or, more important, disappear from—the next count, 10 years later. Rank War Years Deaths 1: World War II: 1941–45: 291,557 2: American Civil War: 1861–65: … Last updated: May 6, 2015 At the outset of the war, neither army had mechanisms in place to handle the amount of death that the nation was about to experience. We may never find out for certain how many men and women, blacks and whites, native born and foreign born died to save the Union and destroy slavery. At the outset of the war, neither army had mechanisms in place to handle the amount of death that the nation was about to experience. It is estimated that from 752,000 to 851,000 soldiers died during the American Civil War. The killers were the wide-spread diseases, during the Civil War. There were no national cemeteries, no burial details, and no messengers of loss. Most casualties and deaths in the Civil War were the result of non-combat-related disease. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Deaths among African-American troops have long had a widely accepted numerical accounting, but these numbers, too, Hacker believes, deserve reconfiguring, though no one is quite sure how to do it. Hundreds of thousands died of disease. The 26th North Carolina, hailing from seven counties in the western part of the state, suffered 714 casualties out of 800 men during the Battle of Gettysburg. Most deaths were non-combat related. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. Civil War POWs Confederate and Union Civil War Prisoners of War PA Veteran Burials Records More men’s lives were lost in the Civil War than in World War I and World War II combined. Enlistment stations were set up in towns and cities across the country, but for the most part only those stations in major northern cities can be relied upon to have preserved records. Indeed, it is so complex that even 150 years later no one has, and perhaps no one will, assemble a specific, accurate set of numbers, especially on the Confederate side. Battle Of Antietam: Over 22,000 casualties Nearly 500,000 military personnel died during the U.S. Civil War. (Library of Congress), Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land, Save 40 Acres of the American Revolution Southern Theater, Kentuckians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Virginians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation. Donate today to preserve Civil War battlefields and the nation’s history for generations to come. Pre-war jobs on farms or in factories became impossible or nearly so. What is extraordinary about all this is that we still desperately want to know the truth—the whole truth, and nothing but the precise truth—about the toll of war. Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land! (Library of Congress), The average Civil War soldier was 26 years old, weighing 143 pounds and standing 5'8" tall. e. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. They were William F. Fox and Thomas Leonard Livermore, both veterans of the Union Army. The VA estimates around 2.2 million Union combatants. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. This figure represents approximately 2 percent of the American population in 1860. VIDEO: Battery H Of The 3rd Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery At Gettysburg, Dan Bullock: The youngest American killed in the Vietnam War, How a Dentist Developed a Clever, but Flawed, System for Discharging Firearms. Dan Bullock died at age 15 in 1969 and efforts to recognize the young African-American Marine continue and are highlighted in this Military Times documentary. Civil War Casualties: The Numbers. This chart and the one below are based on research done by Provost Marshal General James Fry in 1866. Read more of … Mass mourning is never far from the surface of Amer­ican culture, and statistics not only encourage scholarly debate but expose unhealed wounds. Caveats notwithstanding, Hacker bravely aimed at revising the total count, concluding the actual death toll for the Civil War amounted to between 650,000 and 850,000—and by prudently splitting the difference, proposed a new number: 750,000, as reported in America’s Civil War in March 2012. Battle Of Chancellorsville: Over 29,000 casualties What, exactly, qualifies a wound and did armies account for this the same way? "Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Overlooking the common misspelling of names and general lack of specificity concerning the condition of a "present" or "absent" soldier, muster rolls provide a valuable look into the past. His estimates for Southern states were based on Confederate muster rolls--many of which were destroyed before he began his study--and many historians have disputed the results. Seven Days Battle: Over 35,000 casualties The Civil War Trust does not agree with this claim. Confederate enlistment rolls are virtually non-existent. Company A, also known as the "University Greys" suffered 100% casualties in Pickett's Charge. Their preservation was adversely affected by rain, river crossings, clerical errors, and cavalry raids. Civil War Deaths A rough estimate from the American Battlefield Trust puts the number of Americans killed in the Civil War at around 650,000. During the entire Civil War (1861-1865), an estimated 750,000 soldiers died, according to a 2011 study in the journal Civil War History. Enter your search term (such as a surname) in the box and press Enter to see the first "hit." Second Battle Of Bull Run: Over 24,000 casualties What caused the Civil War? It still holds several notorious records, such as the highest number of average deaths per day (504). https://www.thoughtco.com/ten-bloodiest-civil-war-battles-104527 HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. The 24th Michigan squared off against the 26th North Carolina at Gettysburg and lost 362 out of 496 men. Given the relatively complete preservation of Northern records, Fry's examination of Union deaths is far more accurate than his work in the South. (Rodney Bryant and Daniel Woolfolk/Military Times)... HistoryNet, Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero. For many, however, there was no solution. The nature of recruitment meant that a battlefield disaster could wreak havoc on the home community. It is estimated that one in three Southern households lost at least one family member. There were an estimated 1.5 million casualties reported during the Civil War. Most people think that to become a casualty, a soldier has to be killed, but this is not so. Recruitment was highly localized throughout the war. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Hacker put it modestly when he opined that “it is just a curiosity.” In a sobering afterthought, he wisely told Gugliotta and the Times: “It’s our duty to get it right.”. (See article below), Combat Deaths: Over 110,000 The Civil War was America's bloodiest conflict. The Civil War (1861-1865) produced the most American casualties, when both Union statistics and Confederate estimates are taken into account. Soldiers cemeteries became part of the American culture—and not just at Gettysburg. The American Battlefield Trust and our members have saved more than 53,000 acres in 24 states! There is not anything fun about the Civil War casualties...It is very sobering to stop and look at the truly tragic cost of life from this war. According to the American Battlefield Trust, of the 3.5 million men who fought in the war, there were 1.5 million casualties 620,000 of which were deaths, making the Civil War the bloodiest in American history. Tens of thousands of families slipped into destitution. US Civil War deaths therefore could range from 617,877 to 851,066, and he settles on an estimate of 750,000 dead. This chart and the one below are based on research done by Provost Marshal General James Fry in 1866. Battle Of The Wilderness: Over 24,000 casualties Disease killed more people than everything else combined including gunshots, artillery, accidents, drowning, starvation, suicide etc… The worst disease in the Civil War … The scholarly journal Civil War History not only published the Hacker findings but trumpeted them, almost uncharacteristically, as “among the most consequential pieces ever to appear” between its covers. A casualty may also be defined as any combatant who is absent or unaccounted for during the war. Military deaths on the battlefield during the Civil War total upwards of 200,000, with the North losing roughly 110,000 soldiers and the South losing about 95,000. For every three soldiers killed in battle, five more died of disease. Today, it spans 624 acres. The effects of this devastating conflict are still felt today. CIVIL WAR VETERANS OF BURLINGTON AND VICINITY WHO DIED OR WERE KILLED DURING THE WAR 1861 - 1865 SEARCH -- Press Control F. A small box pops up in the upper right hand corner of the screen. And he’s still as intrigued as the rest of us by the challenge of counting the number of farm boys who died from sickness after exposure to germ-riddled, but essentially immune, urban soldiers. Casualty lists gives the number of men in a unit who were killed, wounded, or went missing in an engagement. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. Help save a crucial 22-acre tract on the battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military honor in the land. Soldiers went to war with their neighbors and their kin. This has been the accepted norm for more than 100 years. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. The estimates for Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, South Carolina, and Arkansas have been updated to reflect more recent scholarship. Even with close to total conscription, the South could not match the North's numerical strength. Casualties in the Civil War At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. Inevitably, the new death-counting process proved more complicated than even this. Good question...It comes from the work of two dedicated amateur historians of the late 1800s. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. The major cause of death during the Civil War was disease. The rush to build cemeteries, monuments and memorials, together with the overwhelming responsibility merely to bury dead bodies, filled survivors with an abiding reverence for, and obsessive fascination with, those who sacrificed that the nation might live (and even those who gave their lives that it might die). Federal Identification Number (EIN): 54-1426643. Likewise, 2/3 Confederate troops died of infection. That’s almost half of all Americans who have ever died during wartime, and more than … Save 36 Acres of Hallowed Ground at Two Virginia Taverns, Combined Federal Campaign and State Charitable Campaigns, Watch Exclusive Videos on our YouTube Channel. Approximately one in four soldiers that went to war never returned home. After contracting COVID-19 in March of this year, Adkins died after a brief struggle with the virus.... Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. Drew Gilpin Faust was right. Other Deaths*: Over 165,000, (*Other Deaths include, among others: disease (by far the most common cause of death), accidents, drowning, heat stroke, suicide, murder, execution. From the Civil War to the 1918 flu pandemic to the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, this is how many Americans died in the nation's worst conflicts and contagions. Battle Of Fredericksburg: Over 18,000 casualties Total U.S. Servicemembers (Worldwide) 5,720,000 Total Serving (In Theater) 1,789,000 Battle Deaths 33,739 Other Deaths (In Theater) 2,835 Other Deaths in Service (Non-Theater) 17,672 Non-mortal Woundings 103,284 Living Veterans 1,165,000 Vietnam War (1964-1975) Total U.S. Servicemembers (Worldwide) 8,744,000 Deployed to Southeast Asia Of the 462,634 Confederate soldiers captured 247,769 were paroled on the field and 25,976 died in prison. The Cost of War: Killed, Wounded, Captured, and Missing. Roughly 2% of the population, an estimated 620,000 men, lost their lives in the line of duty. In total, more than 3.5 million Americans would fight in the Civil War; more than 2 million for the Union, some 1.5 million for the Confederate States. Nearly as many men died in captivity during the Civil War as were killed in the whole of the Vietnam War. 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